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If a leader announces decision during or before deliberations this inhibits... Open discussion/ Group members may not go against the leader. Groupthink occurs when a group that is made up of members who may actually be very competent and thus quite capable of making excellent decisions, nevertheless ends up, as a result of a flawed group process and strong conformity pressures, making poor decisions (Janis, 1982; Packer, 2009). Pressuring people to agree with you that are voicing contrary opinions or points of view. Symptoms of Groupthink. Groupthink occurs because of. Groupthink occurs in groups when individual thinking or individual creativity is lost or subverted to stay within the comfort zone of the consensus view. Janis listed eight symptoms that show that concurrence seeking has led the group astray. False Although Groupthink could be applied to Enron and Arthur Anderson's decision-making, Janis actually derived the theory by examining governmental/presidential decisions, like Kennedy's decision to invade Cuba at the Bay of Pigs. How does nominal group technique differ? Among the criteria for evaluating a theory, four are especially relevant for discussion: heurism, scope, testability, and test of time. They argue that half of the symptoms of groupthink are not associated with concurrence seeking-a key feature of the theory. Conformity is valued. Answer. _____________, a structural factor leading to Groupthink, means that the group is led by people who have a personal interest in the outcome. Cohesiveness. Groupthink … Group scholars have pointed to some validity problems with the theory, therefore calling into question its testability. Now we need to look at the effects of the group think. This causes the group to minimize conflict and reach a consensus decision without critical evaluation. By learning to recognize and combat this phenomenon of like-mindedness, teams can develop better ideas and spark more strategic thinking through positive conflict and critical disagreement of ideas. What are they? 5. Hear no evil see no evil speak no evil. Groupthink is a psychological phenomenon that occurs within a group of people in which the desire for harmony or conformity in the group results in an irrational or dysfunctional decision-making outcome. Member will refrain from dissenting in order to have good relationships in the group- Normative Social Influence. Some of the studies done have lead to conflicting conclusions about which factors are most predictive of groupthink. What are the signs that group loyalty has caused members to slip into a groupthink mentality? Groupthink- Faulty sense of agreement within a group. The theory of Groupthink is a heuristic undertaking; the theory and many of its elements have been employed in a number of studies and have enjoyed the attention of many communication and social psychology scholars. Groupthink is a theory dedicated to understanding the decision-making process in small groups. The next pair reflect the tunnel vision members use to view the problem. If a group comes from a similar background or experience the group is said to be... Isolated from outside opinion. Brainstorming: focused on quantity and generating as many ideas before criticizing the quality of them. Groupthink occurs when: 1. Groupthink is the name given to a theory or model that was extensively developed by Irving Janis (1972) to describe faulty decision making that can occur in groups as a result of forces that bring a group together (group cohesion). Further, they note that Janis incorporates self-esteem in discussions of groupthink, but failed to mention it in his theory. Groupthink can be avoided through a variety of strategies, including: Janis's theory was based on decisions made by organizations like Enron and Arthur Anderson. Since its … "Diversity means difference," Gerstandt said, and difference "shows up as disagreement," which he calls "the engine that drives a robust decision-making process." Disagreement is discouraged. Janis believes that groups frequently make decisions with profound consequences, and although he focused his efforts on foreign policy groups, the application of Groupthink terminology resonates in many other decision-making groups. The group is more concerned with maintaining unity than with objectively evaluating their situation, alternatives and options. a. coheive group b. diverse groups c.u.s goverment groups. They charge that "a theory should be a logical progression of ideas, not a grab-bag of phenomena that were correlated with each other in a sample of six cases" (p. 80). For instance, Jeanne Longley and Dean Pruitt (1980) criticize the validity of the theory. Irving Janis, a social psychologist credited as the first to develop the idea, defined it as a “psychological phenomenon in which people strive for consensus within a group.”At first Janis’ take on groupthink doesn’t seem so bad. Leader of group has most responsibility if group is not structured well enough to make effective decisions. A classic example of groupthink was the decision making process that lead to the Bay of Pigs invasion, whereby the … Groupthink occurs when a group makes faulty or ineffective decisions for the sake of reaching a consensus. The term affiliative constraints refers to group members' tendency to hold back on criticisms because they don't want to be rejected by the other members. Groupthink is a phenomenon that occurs when the desire for group consensus overrides people's common sense desire to present alternatives, critique a position, or express an unpopular opinion. Groupthink occurs when groups place group harmony above: Irving Janis Theory of Groupthink focuses on _____ groups. Understand how groupthink occurs Discuss the many results of groupthink Learn how to prevent groupthink behavior Know when a group is more vulnerable to groupthink; Practice Exams. Generating and apply new ideas, like what we haven't thought of. (T or F). We have looked at the antecedents. Groupthink is a phenomenon when a group of people get together and start to think collectively with one mind. In situations characterized by groupthink, individuals may self-censor criticism of the group decision, or group leaders may suppress dissenting information. Thinking that the group is right so I don't have to pay attention. Efficient groups must work to overcome both groupthink and the Abilene Paradox as part of optimising group dynamics. Upload Date: 5/31/2017. (T or F). groupthink occurs in ___? Consulting a third party (outside the group). Groupthink occurs when a team or organization becomes so similar in their outlook that they lose the ability to be creative in their decision making. Groupthink occurs when group members are more concerned with group cohesion and unanimity than with the genuine appraisal of various approaches to a problem Misguided policy decisions in the White House-- sponsor bay of pigs, cover up Watergate scandal. 1. Groupthink research is highly subjective, and researchers who observe group decision making often disagree on when or why groupthink occurs. The theory has generated a number of assumptions about group behavior, and Groupthink remains an important part of the literature on group decision making. How do communication researchers define creativity? A It occurs in cohesive groups. Irving Janis Theory of Groupthink focuses on _____ groups. Groupthink occurs when a team of intelligent, well-intentioned people makes irrational or poor decisions based on a desire to conform with and be accepted by the rest of the group. Why is Groupthink Bad? Janis thought that pressures toward uniformity could take many forms, including self-censorship. Collaboration: Conflict management/teamwork. Group work is favored in many instances, because: _____________, a structural factor leading to Groupthink, means that the group is able to be unaffected by the outside world. Cohesiveness; Structural Aspects of the group; Provocative situational context. Organized in a way which prevents good decision making. 1. Mode of thinking: concern for reaching and maintaining consensus instead of making the best decision. Groupthink is a psychological phenomenon that occurs within a group of people in which the desire for harmony or conformity in the group results in an irrational or dysfunctional decision-making outcome. Also known as circular reasoning because the reasoning assumes the conclusion is true Sometimes occurs due to "peer pressure or groupthink phenomenon when you may be influenced to conform to the opinion of the group. Although groupthink leads to making suboptimal decisions, group leaders can take steps to avoid groupthink and improve decision … Members don't care about the task or goals of the group 3. The first two stem from overconfidence in the group’s prowess. 1. when a person feels they don't have to contribute and the other members will pickup the slack. Groupthink is a phenomenon developed in groups marked by the consensus of opinion without critical reasoning or evaluation of consequences or alternatives. Neglecting information that contradicts the thinking of the group. When President Lyndon Johnson and his staff thought of the North Vietnamese as only Communists, they exhibited _____________, according to Groupthink. People often find it hard to think and act independently in group situations. Although group thinking has been around for centuries, the term “groupthink” was not coined until 1972 by Irving Janis, a social psychologist. They try to maintain the harmony of the group and sacrifice individual critical thinking for groupthink. (T or F). Groupthink occurs when a group that is made up of members who may actually be very competent and thus quite capable of making excellent decisions nevertheless ends up making a poor one as a result of a flawed group process and strong conformity pressures (Baron, 2005; Janis, 2007). A causal situation where we are unsure of the actual root cause of the issue. Groupthink occurs when people’s desire to maintain group loyalty becomes more important than making the best choices. How does shyness differ? Unanimous consensus- uncontested support by all group members. What steps does the textbook suggest will make meetings more productive and efficient? Medical, military, or political decisions, for example, can lead to unfortunate outcomes when they are impaired by the effects of groupthink. 2. This can be damaging even in minor situations but can have much more dire consequences in certain settings. The group, as a whole, tends to take irrational actions or overestimate their positions or moral rightness. People’s common sense and ability to perform problem solving, make good decisions, and raise unpopular views are overridden by the desire for group consensus. Groupthink theory and its implications for group decision making methods. _____________ is defined as the extent to which group members are willing to work together, or the group's sense of togetherness. Decision effects resources and power to group. In such a case people want to be on good terms with their group no matter what the cost. A mode of thinking that people engage in when they are deeply involved in a cohesive in-group, when the members' striving for unanimity override their motivation to realistically appraise alternate courses of action, Illusion of Invulnerability, Belief in the inherent morality of the group, Collective Rationalization, Out-group stereotypes, Self-Censorship, Illusion of Unanimity, Direct Pressure on Dissenters, Self-Appointed Mind Guards, The attitude of, "everything is going to work out all right because we are a special group". Identify and explain the ways that groups make decisions. Groupthink occurs when the pressure to conform within a group interferes with that group's analysis of a problem and causes poor group decision making. Challenging idea may not be expressed if there is an investment in the group. Groupthink is a psychological phenomenon that occurs within a group of people, in which the desire for harmony or conformity in the group results in an incorrect or deviant decision-making outcome. Groupthink is a tricky concept. Illusion of invulnerability; closed mindedness; pressure toward uniformity; poor decision making, Bias; Don't examine risk; don't look at alternatives, belief that nothing can go wrong with in the group, the self righteous belief that the virtues of group are above reproach, categorizing of others outside the group in ways that see their views as unacceptable, the overt restraint of group members against offering opinions counter to the prevailing thought in the group, the statement of group agreement while private doubts and disagreements are suppressed, the coercive force that obliges group members to behave and think in similar ways, the protection of the group from contrary information from outside influences. Explain brainstorming. Groupthink occurs when members strive for unanimity, resulting in self-deception, forced consent, and conformity to group values and ethics (Rose, Hopthrow & Crisp). The list of groupthink investments that have gone terribly wrong over the years is a long one. To deal with the herd mentality problem, here are the 8 symptoms of groupthink from The Little Book of Behavioral Investing by James Montier: An illusion of invulnerability: Members ignore danger, take extreme risk and are overly optimistic. 2. According to Groupthink, external stress tends to motivate a group and spur it on to better, more productive decision making. When decision makers are under great stress, they tend to break down and make poor decisions. Groupthink, mode of thinking in which individual members of small cohesive groups tend to accept a viewpoint or conclusion that represents a perceived group consensus, whether or not the group members believe it to be valid, correct, or optimal.Groupthink reduces the efficiency of collective problem solving within such groups.. Groupthink occurs in groups when individual thinking or individual creativity is lost or subverted to stay within the comfort zone of the consensus view. According to psychologist Irving Janis, groupthink is “a deterioration of mental efficiency, reality testing, and moral judgment that results from in-group pressures.” Group members often […] In other words, the person stands fast when faced with disagreement. In later writings, however, Janis (1982) addresses self-esteem as an antecedent to groupthink. Groupthink is defined as “A strong concurrence-seeking tendency that interferes with effective group decision making” (Forsyth, 40). Belief in the Inherent Morality of the Group. One member is knowledgeable/credible or very persuasive. Independence occurs when a person initially disagrees with a group and exhibits neither compliance nor acceptance after being exposed to group pressure. Group must make decision quickly. problem solving _____ is defined as the extent to which group members are willing to work together, or the group's sense of togetherness. There are mixed emotions about this topic. Assess what is the motivation or the driving force that will increase success and decrease failure. When groupthink occurs, in other words, the benefits of diversity can be lost. Aspects about a group itself which cause poor decision making. True Self-censorship refers to group members' tendency to minimize their doubts and counterarguments, providing an atmosphere of uniformity of opinion in the group. Furthermore, groupthink can produce dehumanizing actions against the "outgroup". 4. Don't call a meeting unless no other better option exists. What are the three antecedents (causes) of Groupthink? Despite the fact that many groupthink principles can be applied to several types of groups, Janis was clear in his original conceptualization in applying Groupthink solely to decision-making groups in crisis periods; he does not readily apply his thinking to every group type. Members automatically assume the "rightness" of their cause. Limiting the information that decision makers by not asking or not reporting dissenting opinions. Cohesiveness, or the desire for cohesiveness, in a group may produce a tendency among its members to agree at all costs. Groupthink can be prevented by: 1. Therefore, the scope of the theory could be defined as narrow. Insulated(isolated), homogeneity, poor decision making procedures. Groupthink can cause people to ignore important information and can ultimately lead to poor decisions. How can groups prevent Groupthink? Virtual Teaching Assistant: Heather L. Question Level: Basic Karma: Free . True Affiliative constraints, a term coined by Dennis Gouran,refers to the fact that group members fear rejection and thus participate in ways that will maintain the group's harmony rather than fully examine the problem. Groupthink occurs normally when there a strong sense of “we” in the group. This 13 words question was answered by Heather L. on StudySoup on 5/31/2017. What is social loafing? False External stress on the group may evoke Groupthink. Identify the four steps of Dewey's Reflective Model. When a decision to go to war is made because the U.S. perceives its way of life to be the best way, the decision makers may be suffering a symptom of Groupthink known as: belief in an inherent morality of the group. Group lacks a structured decision-making process. The question contains content related to English and Arts and Humanities. Censoring yourself or not stressing your opinion as strenuously as you could. The paradox is similar to groupthink but generally when the Abilene Paradox occurs, the individual members of the group feel the overall decision is a poor one, but this isn’t always the case with groupthink. Groupthink is a psychological phenomenon that occurs within a group of people in which the desire for harmony or conformity in the group results in an irrational or dysfunctional decision-making outcome. Here, the desire for group cohesion effectively drives out good decision-making and problem solving. a. excessive concern about task productivity and excessive cohesiveness b. excessive cohesiveness and excessive concurrence seeking c. discouragement of disagreement and dissent d. both b & c. The Standard Agenda. Groupthink occurs when a group values cohesiveness and unanimity more than making the right decision. Groupthink occurs when groups place group harmony above: motivation to assess plans of action. -Using a policy-forming group which reports to the larger group. According to your textbook, how can you deal with difficult group members? The events at Nanking occurred within the context of an altered mode of thinking that essentially made the Japanese soldiers incapable of making rational decisions. Nevertheless, groupthink remains an important theory of communication, because it shows how communication can break down under …

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